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02 July 2024 - Daily Current Affairs Updates (IAS)

Today’s Current Affairs Update: “ProxyGyan IAS Express”

Date: 02 July 2024.

1. Minami - Torishima Island

2. Santhal tribal Community

3. European Council

4. Araku Valley Arabica Coffee

5. Project - 76

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1. Minami - Torishima Island -Places in News:

• News: A survey conducted by University of Tokyo has found the seabed around Minami-Tori-shima island harboring 610,000 metric tons of cobalt and 740,000 metric tons of nickel.

• Definition: Minami-Torishima Island, also known as Marcus Island, is a significant and unique part of Japan's territory.

• Location and Geography:

• It is the easternmost territory of Japan, situated 1,950 km southeast of central Tokyo.

• The island is an isolated coral atoll in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, lying past the Japan Trench on the Pacific Plate.

2. Santhal Tribal Community - Tribes in News:

• News: The Prime Minister of India recently honored the sacrifices and bravery of the Santhal tribal community.

• Definition:

• The Santhal tribal community is the third-largest scheduled tribe in India, following the Gonds and Bhils.

• Their primary concentrations are in the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, and Odisha, located in the eastern part of the country.

• Language:

• The Santhals speak Santhali, a dialect of Kherwari, part of the Munda (Austroasiatic) language family.

• Santhali is written in the Ol Chiki script and is recognized as one of the scheduled languages in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution

• History and Migration:

o. Originally a nomadic group, the Santhals eventually settled on the Chotanagpur plateau.

o. By the end of the 18th century, they were concentrated in the Santhal Parganas of Jharkhand (previously part of Bihar).

o. From there, they migrated to Odisha and West Bengal

• Religion and Culture:

• Santhals are nature worshippers and often pay homage at Jaher (sacred groves) in their villages.

• Traditional attire includes dhoti and gamuchha for men and short-check sarees, usually blue and green, for women, who often adorn tattoos.

• Various forms of marriage are accepted in Santhalsociety, including elopement, widow remarriage.

• Santhal Rebellion (1855-56):

• The Santhal uprising is a notable revolt against the British Raj, occurring between 1855 and 1856.

• It was India's first major peasant uprising, driven by the implementation of the Permanent Land Settlement in 1793.

• The rebellion was led by Sido and Kanhu and primarily took place in the regions of Bihar.

3. European Council: International Organisation in News:

• News: Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has congratulated H.E Mr. António Costa on being elected as next President of the European Council.

• Definition: The European Council is a crucial institution of the European Union (EU) that defines the general political direction and priorities of the EU

• Establishment: Created in 1974 as an informal forum for discussions among the heads of state or government of EU member states.

• Treaty of Maastricht: Acquired formal status and role under this treaty to provide the impetus and general political guidelines for the EU.

• Members: Comprises the heads of state or government of the 27 EU member states, the European Council President, and the President of the European Commission.

• Functions:

• Decides on the EU's overall direction and political priorities.

• Does not pass laws but provides the necessary political impetus.

• Deals with complex or sensitive issues that cannot be resolved at lower levels of intergovernmental cooperation.

• Sets the EU's common foreign and security policy, considering EU strategic interes and defense implications.

• Appointments:

• Nominates and appoints candidates to high-profile EU roles, such as those in the European Central Bank (ECB) and the European Commission.

• Headquarters:

Brussels, Belgium.

4. Araku Valley Arabica Coffee: Coffee Variety in News

• News: Prime Minister Narendra Modi, in the 111th episode of 'Mann Ki Baat' praised the "flavour and significance" of Araku coffee from Andhra Pradesh.

• Definition: Araku Valley Arabica coffee is cultivated in the hilly terrains of Visakhapatnam district in Andhra Pradesh, India, and parts of Odisha.

• Geographical Indication (GI) Tag: Awarded in 2019, the GI tag signifies the unique qualities and reputation of Araku coffee due to its geographical origin.

• Cultivation: Grown at elevations of 900-1100 meters above sea level in the Araku Valley, known for its conducive climate and terrain for coffee cultivation.

• Organic Practices: The coffee is cultivated through the use of organic manures, green manuring, and organic pest management techniques.

• Community Involvement: The production of Arakucoffee involves tribal communities, emphasizing sustainable and community-oriented agricultural practices.

5. Project - 76 : Defence Technology in News:

• News: Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has taken up a preliminary study on the design and development of an indigenous conventional submarine under Project-76.

• Objective: Project-76 aims to design and develop India's first indigenously-built conventional diesel-electric submarine.

• Scope:

•. The Indian Navy plans to construct 12 submarines under this project.

•. These submarines will be air-independent propulsion (AIP)-equipped diesel-electric attack submarines with a submerged displacement of 3,000 tons.

•. They are designed to surpass their foreign-designed predecessors like Project-751 (India) and Project-75 submarines.

• Timeline and Significance:

• The construction of the prototype is targeted to begin by 2028:

• This project is crucial for enhancing India's submarine-building capabilities and reducing dependence on foreign Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) for submarine design.

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